Aging; Immune System; Immune System Diseases; Lyme Disease; Macrophages; Neutrophils; Pathology; Public Health; Rheumatology; Virus Diseases; West Nile virus
Public Health Interests
Skin Diseases Research Center, Yale
Mobile @ Yale
The focus of our lab’s research is on innate immunity, specifically the interaction of macrophages, neutrophils, and dendritic cells with pathogens. We study the effect of aging and immunosuppression on immune responses and specifically on the expression and efficiency of Toll-Like receptors. In our studies from a large cohort of human subjects, we have shown that older donors express lower levels of certain TLRs and show dysregulation of immune pathways in aging.
Our studies on West Nile virus (WNV) have shown that infection attenuates the activation of macrophages and interferes with intracellular signaling pathways. We have shown dysregulation of TLR3 in macrophages from older donors infected with WNV that leads to higher expression of cytokines and which may contribute to more severe infection in the elderly. We have evaluated the contribution of macrophages and neutrophils in several murine models of WNV infection, and in a genome-wide RNAi screen to identify host factors involved in anti-viral responses.
We conducted a comprehensive examination of phagocyte killing mechanisms in Lyme disease, and we have identified components of vector saliva that inhibit PMN function through down-regulation of leukocyte integrins. In addition to our high-resolution confocal imaging studies on phagocytes, we have imaged entire Ixodes ticks (J. Exp. Med. cover image, June 2006), and intact salivary glands to demonstrate expression of a novel tick receptor for spirochete outer surface protein A, and efficient down-regulation of salivary anti-coagulants by RNAi.
I am the Director of the CyTOF facility, which houses CyTOF2 instrument from DVS Sciences. CyTOF is a mass-spec based cell analyzer which provides multi-parametric single cell data. CyTOF improves on fluorescent flow cytometry by allowing detection of a greater number of markers per sample (~30-40 instead of 4-8) without background signals, and most importantly, without overlap between signals.
Specialized Terms: Innate Immunity; Macrophage; Neutrophil; Aging; West Nile Virus; Lyme Disease
High Standards for High Dimensional Investigations.
Montgomery, R. R. 2016. Cytometry A in press.
Association between high expression macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) alleles and West Nile virus encephalitis
Das, R., K. Loughran, C. Murchison, F. Qian, L. Leng, Y. Song, R. R. Montgomery, M. Loeb, and R. Bucala. 2016. . Cytokine 78: 51-54.
NK cell repertoire diversity reflects immune experience and predicts viral susceptibility.
Strauss-Albee, D. M., J. Fukuyama, E. C. Liang, Y. Yao, J. A. Jarrell, A. L. Drake, J. Kinuthia, R. R. Montgomery, G. John-Stewart, S. Holmes, and C. A. Blish. 2015. NK cell repertoire diversity reflects immune experience and predicts viral susceptibility. Sci Trans Med 7: 297ra115.
Systems Immunology reveals markers of susceptibility to West Nile virus infection
Qian, F., G. Goel, H. Meng, X. Wang, F. You, L. Devine, K. Raddassi, M. N. Garcia, K. O. Murray, C. R. Bolen, R. Gaujoux, S. S. Shen-Orr, D. Hafler, E. Fikrig, R. J. Xavier, S. H. Kleinstein, and R. R. Montgomery. Systems Immunology reveals markers of susceptibility to West Nile virus infection. Clin. Vacc. Immunol. 22, 6-16. 2015
CyTOF supports efficient detection of immune cell subsets from small samples.
Yao, Y., R. Liu, M. S. Shin, M. Trentalange, H. Allore, A. Nassar, I. Kang, J. Pober, and R. R. Montgomery. 2014. CyTOF supports efficient detection of immune cell subsets from small samples. J. Immunol. Methods. 415: 1-5. DOI: 10.1016/j.jim.2014.10.010.
Reduced Bioenergetics and Toll-like Receptor 1 Function in Human Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes in Aging.
Qian, F., X. Guo, X. Wang, X. Yuan, S. Chen, S. E. Malawista, L. K. Bockenstedt, H. G. Allore, and R. R. Montgomery. 2014. Reduced Bioenergetics and Toll-like Receptor 1 Function in Human Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes in Aging. Aging 6: 131-139.
Immune markers associated with host susceptibility to infection with West Nile virus.
Qian, F., J. Thakar, X. Yuan, M. Nolan, K. O. Murray, W. T. Lee, S. J. Wong, H. Meng, E. Fikrig, S. H. Kleinstein, and R. R. Montgomery. 2014. Immune markers associated with host susceptibility to infection with West Nile virus. Viral immunology 27: 39-47.
Impaired TLR3-mediated interferon responses from macrophages of patients chronically infected with Hepatitis C virus. Clin. Vaccine immunol.
Qian, F.; Bolen, C. R.; Wang, X.; Jing, C.; Fikrig, E.; Bruce, R. D.; Kleinstein, S. H.; Montgomery, R. R., Impaired TLR3-mediated interferon responses from macrophages of patients chronically infected with Hepatitis C virus. Clin. Vaccine immunol. 2013, 20, 146-155.
Age-associated elevation in TLR5 leads to increased inflammatory responses in the elderly.
Qian, F., X. Wang, L. Zhang, S. Chen, M. Piecychna, H. Allore, L. K. Bockenstedt, S. E. Malawista, R. Bucala, A. Shaw, E. Fikrig, and R. R. Montgomery. 2012. Age-associated elevation in TLR5 leads to increased inflammatory responses in the elderly. Aging Cell 11: 104-110.
Impaired interferon signaling in dendritic cells from older donors infected in vitro with West Nile virus.
Qian, F., Wang, X., Zhang, l., Lin, A., Zhao, H., Fikrig, E., and Montgomery, R.R. 2011. Impaired interferon signaling in dendritic cells from older donors infected in vitro with West Nile virus. J. Infect. Dis. 203;1415-1424.
A paradoxical role for neutrophils in the pathogenesis of West Nile virus J.
Bai, F., Kong, K.-F., Dai, J., Qian, F., Zhang, L., Brown, C.R., Fikrig, E., and Montgomery, R.R. 2010. A paradoxical role for neutrophils in the pathogenesis of West Nile virus J. Infect. Dis. 202:1804-1812.
Inhibition of neutrophil function by two tick salivary proteins.
Guo, X., Booth, C.J., Paley, M.A., Wang, X., DePonte, K., Fikrig, E., Narasimhan, S., and Montgomery, R.R. 2009. Inhibition of neutrophil function by two tick salivary proteins. Infect. Immun.77:2320-2329.
Dysregulation of TLR3 impairs the innate immune response to West Nile virus in the elderly.
Kong, K.-f., Delroux, K., Wang, X., Qian, F., Arjona, A., Malawista, S.E., Fikrig, E., and Montgomery, R.R. 2008. Dysregulation of TLR3 impairs the innate immune response to West Nile virus in the elderly. J. Virol. 82:7613-7623.
Full List of PubMed Publications
- Molony RD, Malawista A, Montgomery RR: Reduced dynamic range of antiviral innate immune responses in aging. Exp Gerontol. 2017 Aug 16; 2017 Aug 16. PMID: 28822811
- Yao Y, Strauss-Albee DM, Zhou JQ, Malawista A, Garcia MN, Murray KO, Blish CA, Montgomery RR: The natural killer cell response to West Nile virus in young and old individuals with or without a prior history of infection. PLoS One. 2017; 2017 Feb 24. PMID: 28235099
- Yao Y, Welp T, Liu Q, Niu N, Wang X, Britto CJ, Krishnaswamy S, Chupp GL, Montgomery RR: Multiparameter Single Cell Profiling of Airway Inflammatory Cells. Cytometry B Clin Cytom. 2017 Jan. PMID: 27807928
- Lindow JC, Wunder EA Jr, Popper SJ, Min JN, Mannam P, Srivastava A, Yao Y, Hacker KP, Raddassi K, Lee PJ, Montgomery RR, Shaw AC, Hagan JE, Araújo GC, Nery N Jr, Relman DA, Kim CC, Reis MG, Ko AI: Cathelicidin Insufficiency in Patients with Fatal Leptospirosis. PLoS Pathog. 2016 Nov; 2016 Nov 3. PMID: 27812211
- Montgomery RR: High standards for high dimensional investigations. Cytometry A. 2016 Oct; 2016 Sep 23. PMID: 27662608
- Pillai PS, Molony RD, Martinod K, Dong H, Pang IK, Tal MC, Solis AG, Bielecki P, Mohanty S, Trentalange M, Homer RJ, Flavell RA, Wagner DD, Montgomery RR, Shaw AC, Staeheli P, Iwasaki A: Mx1 reveals innate pathways to antiviral resistance and lethal influenza disease. Science. 2016 Apr 22. PMID: 27102485
- Das R, Loughran K, Murchison C, Qian F, Leng L, Song Y, Montgomery RR, Loeb M, Bucala R: Association between high expression macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) alleles and West Nile virus encephalitis. Cytokine. 2016 Feb; 2015 Nov 28. PMID: 26638028
- Malawista A, Wang X, Trentalange M, Allore HG, Montgomery RR: Coordinated expression of tyro3, axl, and mer receptors in macrophage ontogeny. Macrophage (Houst). 2016; 2016 Apr 22. PMID: 27695708
- Yao Y, Montgomery RR: Role of Immune Aging in Susceptibility to West Nile Virus. Methods Mol Biol. 2016. PMID: 27188562
- Montgomery RR, Shaw AC: Paradoxical changes in innate immunity in aging: recent progress and new directions. J Leukoc Biol. 2015 Dec; 2015 Jul 17. PMID: 26188078
- Hwang SH, Jung SH, Lee S, Choi S, Yoo SA, Park JH, Hwang D, Shim SC, Sabbagh L, Kim KJ, Park SH, Cho CS, Kim BS, Leng L, Montgomery RR, Bucala R, Chung YJ, Kim WU: Leukocyte-specific protein 1 regulates T-cell migration in rheumatoid arthritis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015 Nov 24; 2015 Nov 9. PMID: 26554018
- Shin MS, You S, Kang Y, Lee N, Yoo SA, Park K, Kang KS, Kim SH, Mohanty S, Shaw AC, Montgomery RR, Hwang D, Kang I: DNA Methylation Regulates the Differential Expression of CX3CR1 on Human IL-7Rαlow and IL-7Rαhigh Effector Memory CD8+ T Cells with Distinct Migratory Capacities to the Fractalkine. J Immunol. 2015 Sep 15; 2015 Aug 14. PMID: 26276874
- Strauss-Albee DM, Fukuyama J, Liang EC, Yao Y, Jarrell JA, Drake AL, Kinuthia J, Montgomery RR, John-Stewart G, Holmes S, Blish CA: Human NK cell repertoire diversity reflects immune experience and correlates with viral susceptibility. Sci Transl Med. 2015 Jul 22. PMID: 26203083
- Montgomery RR, Murray KO: Risk factors for West Nile virus infection and disease in populations and individuals. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2015 Mar; 2015 Jan 30. PMID: 25637260
- Qian F, Goel G, Meng H, Wang X, You F, Devine L, Raddassi K, Garcia MN, Murray KO, Bolen CR, Gaujoux R, Shen-Orr SS, Hafler D, Fikrig E, Xavier R, Kleinstein SH, Montgomery RR: Systems immunology reveals markers of susceptibility to West Nile virus infection. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2015 Jan; 2014 Oct 29. PMID: 25355795
- Qian F, Montgomery RR: Imaging Immunosenescence. Methods Mol Biol. 2015. PMID: 26420711
- Yao Y, Liu R, Shin MS, Trentalange M, Allore H, Nassar A, Kang I, Pober JS, Montgomery RR: CyTOF supports efficient detection of immune cell subsets from small samples. J Immunol Methods. 2014 Dec 15; 2014 Nov 4. PMID: 25450003
- Fülöp T, Montgomery RR: Editorial overview: Immune senescence: known knowns and unknown unknowns. Curr Opin Immunol. 2014 Aug; 2014 Jul 1. PMID: 24996928
- Olivieri F, Procopio AD, Montgomery RR: Effect of aging on microRNAs and regulation of pathogen recognition receptors. Curr Opin Immunol. 2014 Aug; 2014 Apr 25. PMID: 24769423
- Zhou Y, Peng H, Sun H, Peng X, Tang C, Gan Y, Chen X, Mathur A, Hu B, Slade MD, Montgomery RR, Shaw AC, Homer RJ, White ES, Lee CM, Moore MW, Gulati M, Lee CG, Elias JA, Herzog EL: Chitinase 3-like 1 suppresses injury and promotes fibroproliferative responses in Mammalian lung fibrosis. Sci Transl Med. 2014 Jun 11. PMID: 24920662
- Lee N, Shin MS, Kang KS, Yoo SA, Mohanty S, Montgomery RR, Shaw AC, Kang I: Human monocytes have increased IFN-γ-mediated IL-15 production with age alongside altered IFN-γ receptor signaling. Clin Immunol. 2014 May-Jun; 2014 Mar 19. PMID: 24657713
- Qian F, Thakar J, Yuan X, Nolan M, Murray KO, Lee WT, Wong SJ, Meng H, Fikrig E, Kleinstein SH, Montgomery RR: Immune markers associated with host susceptibility to infection with West Nile virus. Viral Immunol. 2014 Mar. PMID: 24605787
- Qian F, Guo X, Wang X, Yuan X, Chen S, Malawista SE, Bockenstedt LK, Allore HG, Montgomery RR: Reduced bioenergetics and toll-like receptor 1 function in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes in aging. Aging (Albany NY). 2014 Feb. PMID: 24595889
- Juthani-Mehta M, Guo X, Shaw AC, Towle V, Ning Y, Wang X, Allore HG, Fikrig E, Montgomery RR: Innate Immune Responses in the Neutrophils of Community Dwelling and Nursing Home Elders. J Aging Sci. 2014 Jan 27. PMID: 25750929
- Shaw AC, Goldstein DR, Montgomery RR: Age-dependent dysregulation of innate immunity. Nat Rev Immunol. 2013 Dec; 2013 Oct 25. PMID: 24157572
- Qian F, Chung L, Zheng W, Bruno V, Alexander RP, Wang Z, Wang X, Kurscheid S, Zhao H, Fikrig E, Gerstein M, Snyder M, Montgomery RR: Identification of genes critical for resistance to infection by West Nile virus using RNA-Seq analysis. Viruses. 2013 Jul 8; 2013 Jul 8. PMID: 23881275
- Kang KS, Lee N, Shin MS, Kim SD, Yu Y, Mohanty S, Belshe RB, Montgomery RR, Shaw AC, Kang I: An altered relationship of influenza vaccine-specific IgG responses with T cell immunity occurs with aging in humans. Clin Immunol. 2013 May; 2013 Mar 15. PMID: 23578549
- Chung LM, Ferguson JP, Zheng W, Qian F, Bruno V, Montgomery RR, Zhao H: Differential expression analysis for paired RNA-Seq data. BMC Bioinformatics. 2013 Mar 27; 2013 Mar 27. PMID: 23530607
- Qian F, Bolen CR, Jing C, Wang X, Zheng W, Zhao H, Fikrig E, Bruce RD, Kleinstein SH, Montgomery RR: Impaired toll-like receptor 3-mediated immune responses from macrophages of patients chronically infected with hepatitis C virus. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2013 Feb; 2012 Dec 5. PMID: 23220997
- Colpitts TM, Conway MJ, Montgomery RR, Fikrig E: West Nile Virus: biology, transmission, and human infection. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2012 Oct. PMID: 23034323
- Sultana H, Neelakanta G, Foellmer HG, Montgomery RR, Anderson JF, Koski RA, Medzhitov RM, Fikrig E: Semaphorin 7A contributes to West Nile virus pathogenesis through TGF-β1/Smad6 signaling. J Immunol. 2012 Sep 15; 2012 Aug 15. PMID: 22896629
- Qian F, Montgomery RR: Quantitative imaging of lineage-specific Toll-like receptor-mediated signaling in monocytes and dendritic cells from small samples of human blood. J Vis Exp. 2012 Apr 16; 2012 Apr 16. PMID: 22525943
- Qian F, Wang X, Zhang L, Chen S, Piecychna M, Allore H, Bockenstedt L, Malawista S, Bucala R, Shaw AC, Fikrig E, Montgomery RR: Age-associated elevation in TLR5 leads to increased inflammatory responses in the elderly. Aging Cell. 2012 Feb; 2011 Nov 28. PMID: 22023165
- Wang P, Bai F, Zenewicz LA, Dai J, Gate D, Cheng G, Yang L, Qian F, Yuan X, Montgomery RR, Flavell RA, Town T, Fikrig E: IL-22 signaling contributes to West Nile encephalitis pathogenesis. PLoS One. 2012; 2012 Aug 28. PMID: 22952908
- Arjona A, Wang P, Montgomery RR, Fikrig E: Innate immune control of West Nile virus infection. Cell Microbiol. 2011 Nov; 2011 Sep 22. PMID: 21790942
- Shaw AC, Panda A, Joshi SR, Qian F, Allore HG, Montgomery RR: Dysregulation of human Toll-like receptor function in aging. Ageing Res Rev. 2011 Jul; 2010 Nov 10. PMID: 21074638
- Qian F, Wang X, Zhang L, Lin A, Zhao H, Fikrig E, Montgomery RR: Impaired interferon signaling in dendritic cells from older donors infected in vitro with West Nile virus. J Infect Dis. 2011 May 15; 2011 Mar 11. PMID: 21398396
- Bai F, Kong KF, Dai J, Qian F, Zhang L, Brown CR, Fikrig E, Montgomery RR: A paradoxical role for neutrophils in the pathogenesis of West Nile virus. J Infect Dis. 2010 Dec 15; 2010 Nov 4. PMID: 21050124
- Sultana H, Neelakanta G, Kantor FS, Malawista SE, Fish D, Montgomery RR, Fikrig E: Anaplasma phagocytophilum induces actin phosphorylation to selectively regulate gene transcription in Ixodes scapularis ticks. J Exp Med. 2010 Aug 2; 2010 Jul 26. PMID: 20660616
- Dunne DW, Shaw A, Bockenstedt LK, Allore HG, Chen S, Malawista SE, Leng L, Mizue Y, Piecychna M, Zhang L, Towle V, Bucala R, Montgomery RR, Fikrig E: Increased TLR4 expression and downstream cytokine production in immunosuppressed adults compared to non-immunosuppressed adults. PLoS One. 2010 Jun 28; 2010 Jun 28. PMID: 20596538
- Mathai SK, Gulati M, Peng X, Russell TR, Shaw AC, Rubinowitz AN, Murray LA, Siner JM, Antin-Ozerkis DE, Montgomery RR, Reilkoff RA, Bucala RJ, Herzog EL: Circulating monocytes from systemic sclerosis patients with interstitial lung disease show an enhanced profibrotic phenotype. Lab Invest. 2010 Jun; 2010 Apr 19. PMID: 20404807
- Panda A, Qian F, Mohanty S, van Duin D, Newman FK, Zhang L, Chen S, Towle V, Belshe RB, Fikrig E, Allore HG, Montgomery RR, Shaw AC: Age-associated decrease in TLR function in primary human dendritic cells predicts influenza vaccine response. J Immunol. 2010 Mar 1; 2010 Jan 25. PMID: 20100933
- Bai F, Town T, Qian F, Wang P, Kamanaka M, Connolly TM, Gate D, Montgomery RR, Flavell RA, Fikrig E: IL-10 signaling blockade controls murine West Nile virus infection. PLoS Pathog. 2009 Oct; 2009 Oct 9. PMID: 19816558
- Sultana H, Foellmer HG, Neelakanta G, Oliphant T, Engle M, Ledizet M, Krishnan MN, Bonafé N, Anthony KG, Marasco WA, Kaplan P, Montgomery RR, Diamond MS, Koski RA, Fikrig E: Fusion loop peptide of the West Nile virus envelope protein is essential for pathogenesis and is recognized by a therapeutic cross-reactive human monoclonal antibody. J Immunol. 2009 Jul 1; 2009 Jun 17. PMID: 19535627
- Panda A, Arjona A, Sapey E, Bai F, Fikrig E, Montgomery RR, Lord JM, Shaw AC: Human innate immunosenescence: causes and consequences for immunity in old age. Trends Immunol. 2009 Jul; 2009 Jun 21. PMID: 19541535
- Guo X, Booth CJ, Paley MA, Wang X, DePonte K, Fikrig E, Narasimhan S, Montgomery RR: Inhibition of neutrophil function by two tick salivary proteins. Infect Immun. 2009 Jun; 2009 Mar 30. PMID: 19332533
- Town T, Bai F, Wang T, Kaplan AT, Qian F, Montgomery RR, Anderson JF, Flavell RA, Fikrig E: Toll-like receptor 7 mitigates lethal West Nile encephalitis via interleukin 23-dependent immune cell infiltration and homing. Immunity. 2009 Feb 20; 2009 Feb 5. PMID: 19200759
- Krishnan MN, Ng A, Sukumaran B, Gilfoy FD, Uchil PD, Sultana H, Brass AL, Adametz R, Tsui M, Qian F, Montgomery RR, Lev S, Mason PW, Koski RA, Elledge SJ, Xavier RJ, Agaisse H, Fikrig E: RNA interference screen for human genes associated with West Nile virus infection. Nature. 2008 Sep 11. PMID: 18690214
- Wang P, Dai J, Bai F, Kong KF, Wong SJ, Montgomery RR, Madri JA, Fikrig E: Matrix metalloproteinase 9 facilitates West Nile virus entry into the brain. J Virol. 2008 Sep; 2008 Jul 16. PMID: 18632868
- Kong KF, Delroux K, Wang X, Qian F, Arjona A, Malawista SE, Fikrig E, Montgomery RR: Dysregulation of TLR3 impairs the innate immune response to West Nile virus in the elderly. J Virol. 2008 Aug; 2008 May 28. PMID: 18508883
- Kong KF, Wang X, Anderson JF, Fikrig E, Montgomery RR: West nile virus attenuates activation of primary human macrophages. Viral Immunol. 2008 Mar. PMID: 18355125
- Arjona A, Foellmer HG, Town T, Leng L, McDonald C, Wang T, Wong SJ, Montgomery RR, Fikrig E, Bucala R: Abrogation of macrophage migration inhibitory factor decreases West Nile virus lethality by limiting viral neuroinvasion. J Clin Invest. 2007 Oct. PMID: 17909632
- Pedra JH, Sutterwala FS, Sukumaran B, Ogura Y, Qian F, Montgomery RR, Flavell RA, Fikrig E: ASC/PYCARD and caspase-1 regulate the IL-18/IFN-gamma axis during Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection. J Immunol. 2007 Oct 1. PMID: 17878377
- Montgomery RR, Booth CJ, Wang X, Blaho VA, Malawista SE, Brown CR: Recruitment of macrophages and polymorphonuclear leukocytes in Lyme carditis. Infect Immun. 2007 Feb; 2006 Nov 13. PMID: 17101663
- van Duin D, Mohanty S, Thomas V, Ginter S, Montgomery RR, Fikrig E, Allore HG, Medzhitov R, Shaw AC: Age-associated defect in human TLR-1/2 function. J Immunol. 2007 Jan 15. PMID: 17202359
- Montgomery RR, Schreck K, Wang X, Malawista SE: Human neutrophil calprotectin reduces the susceptibility of Borrelia burgdorferi to penicillin. Infect Immun. 2006 Apr. PMID: 16552081
- Pal U, Li X, Wang T, Montgomery RR, Ramamoorthi N, Desilva AM, Bao F, Yang X, Pypaert M, Pradhan D, Kantor FS, Telford S, Anderson JF, Fikrig E: TROSPA, an Ixodes scapularis receptor for Borrelia burgdorferi. Cell. 2004 Nov 12. PMID: 15537536
- Liu N, Montgomery RR, Barthold SW, Bockenstedt LK: Myeloid differentiation antigen 88 deficiency impairs pathogen clearance but does not alter inflammation in Borrelia burgdorferi-infected mice. Infect Immun. 2004 Jun. PMID: 15155621
- Montgomery RR, Lusitani D, De Boisfleury Chevance A, Malawista SE: Tick saliva reduces adherence and area of human neutrophils. Infect Immun. 2004 May. PMID: 15102811
- Narasimhan S, Montgomery RR, DePonte K, Tschudi C, Marcantonio N, Anderson JF, Sauer JR, Cappello M, Kantor FS, Fikrig E: Disruption of Ixodes scapularis anticoagulation by using RNA interference. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Feb 3; 2004 Jan 26. PMID: 14745044
- Lusitani D, Malawista SE, Montgomery RR: Calprotectin, an abundant cytosolic protein from human polymorphonuclear leukocytes, inhibits the growth of Borrelia burgdorferi. Infect Immun. 2003 Aug. PMID: 12874352
- Montgomery RR, Lusitani D, de Boisfleury Chevance A, Malawista SE: Human phagocytic cells in the early innate immune response to Borrelia burgdorferi. J Infect Dis. 2002 Jun 15; 2002 May 31. PMID: 12085324
- Lusitani D, Malawista SE, Montgomery RR: Borrelia burgdorferi are susceptible to killing by a variety of human polymorphonuclear leukocyte components. J Infect Dis. 2002 Mar 15; 2002 Feb 20. PMID: 11920297